Terminales – Les mémoires de la Seconde Guerre mondiale – corrigé

corrigé mémoires

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Terminales – Le jeu des puissances depuis 1945 (1)

Quelques cartes et chronologies pour mieux se repérer dans la guerre froide.

1011251

europe-gf-1947

fondcartegfroide

Atlas du Monde

Atlas du Monde

thcabi9d3s

fiche-chrono

860f7419-63c4-479f-8870-3e8d24bdc5c8

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TSTMG – Le Moyen-Orient et le pétrole

Quelques documents pour le cours sur le Moyen-Orient et le pétrole: 1) Une carte de la région (en ppt) et des pays producteurs, 2) Mon cours sur les conflits au Moyen-Orient, 3) Deux fiches synthèse, empruntées à un collègue (“synthèse” et “à savoir”) qui vous résument les notions principales et enfin un graphique montrant les principales réserves de pétrole dans le monde.

Bonnes révisions !

le-moyen-orient-et-le-petrole

les-conflits-du-moyen

tstmg_h1_moyenorient_synthese

tstmg_h1_moyenorient_a-savoir

world_oil_reserves_by_region-pie_chart-svg

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Memories of the 2nd World War (I)

You’ll find here more content and vocabulary for the course “Memories of the second World War”. Good reading !

 

world-war-ii

facts-and-voc-wwii

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Terminale Euro – Memories of the 2nd WW: movies and books reviews

Movies and books reviews

We have seen during the course (or spoke about) a few examples of movies which deals with the topic of the second world war. I would like you to write a movie review showing the way in which the memories of the second world war (from an anglo-saxon point of view) is presented.
Here’s a short list of some movies you can watch and review (you can find a description on the internet of more movies following the link):
The longest day (1962). A classic of the genre, even a monument. John Wayne is leading the attack on D-Day, do I need to say more ?
Hell in the Pacific (1968). Two soldiers, one American, one Japanese, are isolated on a pacific island and must work together to survive. The concept had been used again in other movie, like Enemy or No Man’s Land.
The Sands of Iwo Jiwo (1949). John Wayne leads the attack during the battle of Iwo Jima. Do I need to say more?
The Great Escape (1963). Steve Mac Queen tries to escape from a German Stalag. Another classic.
The bridge over the river Kwaï (1957). Alec Guiness and David Lean are playing POWs in a japanese camp.
Patton (1970). The life and career of the militaristic, moody, short-tempered Gal Patton. A strong and impressive movie.
And, more recent: Inglorious Basterds (2009 – very violent), Fury (2014 – quite graphic also), The Thin Red Line (1998 – very mystical), Saving Private Ryan (1998 – very patriotic)…

You can also see the movie Canopy (2015). An Australian pilot crashes his plane into the Borneo jungle. He has to survive, all by himself, under the canopy of the tropical forest, and encounters a Chinese soldier, who’s also fleeing the Japanese. A much peculiar but very original movie, with a slow pace but a beautiful photography. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2232578/

You can find also some other suggestions here:

http://www.timeout.com/newyork/film/the-50-greatest-war-films-of-all-time

I expect you to give me a title (movie or book) next week (10/6) and to hand me your work back in november.

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Terminale Euro – Memories of the second world war (08/12/2014)

How the war is treated in US fictions :

Firemen-Raise-Flag1

iwo

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Memories of the second world war – correction

You’ll find here (right click on the link to download it) a correction for the last exam about “Memories”. Of course, this is only an example, and it’s longer than what would be expected for the exam but i added many elements that you could add to the course itself.

Term Euro exam

WW2_Iwo_Jima_flag_raising

Here’s the pdf of a conference given about the spiritual and metaphysical dimension of combat. You’ll find the quote of Jesse Glenn Gray at the beginning. The text is difficult but i thought that you could find it interesting to read if you’ve got time.

DrFrenchSpeechJan11 Men in combat

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Memories of the Second World War – epilogue

Truman speech-hiroshima

fat-man-model

little-boy-model

nagasaki-1

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Terminale Euro – Memories of the second world war

The 2nd World War – lesson

warsaw

Nazi Bestiality

The 2nd World War – Lesson

When the First World War came to an end in 1918, the winners tried to enforce a peace that would last. It was the main goal of the Treaty of Versailles.
But, till the beginning, the treaty was doomed to fail. Germany was held responsible for the war and forced to pay heavy reparations. The German economy was pinned down by the burden of debt and inflation. The Italians felt poorly rewarded for their participation on the allied side. In addition, the great depression of the 30th threw millions of workers out of work and worsened considerably the political and social situation in Europe, especially in Germany.
Adolf Hitler, born in Austria in 1889, preached the superiority of the “Aryan” race over all others, particularly the slavs, the communists and the jews. His party, the NSDAP, or Nazi party (National Socialist) came to power in 1933. In Italy, the Italians flocked to the support of Benito Mussolini. Mussolini was following similar grandiose, nationalistic designs.
In 1936, Hitler and Mussolini claimed their mutual support with the creation of the Berlin-Rome Axis.
France and Britain did little to resist the Nazis and fascists ventures. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 and Hitler took over Austria in 1938. Both illegally intervened into the Spanish civil war, to support the franquists forces. Czechoslovakia was invaded in 1938. So did Poland in 1939. This time, France and England reacted, but too late.
Soon, war broke up again in Europe, then in the world, involving many countries from the east and the west, and their colonies.

– In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland.
– In 1940, the French Army was crushed, so was Denmark’s and Holland’s. Only Britain was left in 1941 to resist the German assaults.
– Germany invaded USSR in 1941 and Pearl Harbor brought the USA into war.
– In 1942, the victory of El-Alamein marked a shift in the situation. The retreat of the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) was long but victory finally came to the Allied in 1945.

The consequences of the World War II

50 million people have died during the conflict. For the first time in history, since the wars of religion during the XVIth and XVIIth centuries, the civilians were more affected than the armies. 75 p.c. of the victims were civilians. Deportation, concentration camp, slaughter and cold-blood massacres, bombings and epidemics caused awful losses, especially in Eastern Europe: The USSR suffered a loss of 20 million people (12 p.c of its population), Poland 6 million/18 p.c.
Moreover, for the world has experienced the biggest cold-blooded enterprise of Genocide. From spring 1942 to the fall 1943 took place the “Operation Reinhard”. This first ambitious program aimed to eliminate two million of Jews, gathered in Poland, into the various concentration camps of Mathausen, Dachau, Chelmno…etc Six Extermination camps were built between 1942 and 1943. One could hardly call them “camps” as there were only railroads which led to the Gas chambers. The particularity of the Nazi Genocide was that it was organized as a scientific and rationalized enterprise. Death was an industry. The prisoners were directed to the shower where they were executed by gas spraying and other prisoners were hired to shovel the cadavers into the furnace (crematory).
The belongings of the prisoners were systematically reused. The jewels, money…were given to the Reichsbank, the clothes were given to several organization of social help, the hair of women were used to make slippers…
1 700 000 million Jew people were killed in Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno and Majdanek. 1 million people were killed in Auschwitz. In November 1944, Himmler gave order to end the killing in Auschwitz and to destroy all the installations of the camp. But in two years, the polish Jews, the German ones, the French Jewish communities, those from Yugoslavia and Romania, Greece, Belgium, Holland and Italy had been almost completely eradicated. Only Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Bulgaria were spared the slaughter.

Activity: Part.I: Massacre of Ukrainian Jews.

The Auschwitz complex is representative of all the step of the Final Solution: it was a labo(u)r camp, a concentration camp and a death camp. In 1940, a concentration camp settled on a swamp zone of Silesia to gather the german and polish Jews. Shortly after, an IG Farben factory was put on the site in order to take advantage of the local available workforce constituted by the prisoners. Little by little, the place became an extermination camp. On March, 22, 1943, a gas chamber with a capacity of 2000 people was put into service, linked to five crematory. The activity of Auschwitz II-Birkenau reached its higher point in august 1944: 24 000 Hungary Jews were exterminated in one single day. In total, 1 million Jews were killed at Auschwitz between 1942 and 1944. For almost two years, Auschwitz had been the place of the execution of hundreds of Poles, and of terrible tortures. In the early months of 1942 a new camp was being built there, in the nearby hamlet of Birkenau. More than a million Jews were to be brought to Birkenau by train from all over Europe, mostly in sealed railway trucks in conditions of the utmost squalor, during which many died. Of those thousand, half were usually murdered by gas within a few hours of their arrival. Heinrich Grüber, a German Protestant pastor, had been imprisoned in Dachau for having denounced the murders of Jews.

Activity II: The A-Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

On December 2, 1943, in an atomic pile located at the University of Chicago’s disused football stadium, an Italian Jewish émigré scientist who had fled from his country produced the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. The next step was to find and process the uranium needed to manufacture an atomic bomb.
On April 28, at a lakeside village in northern Italy, Mussolini was seized by Italian partisans. He had sought to disguise himself in a German Air Force greatcoat and helmet but was recognized and then shot with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Her body and Mussolini’s were taken by truck to Milan and hung up by the heels.

On the morning of April 29 the German armies in Italy – more than one million men – surrendered to the allies. On April 30, American troops entered Munich. That afternoon in Berlin, a Soviet soldier waved the Red Banner from a second floor window of the Reichstag, less than a mile from Hitler’s bunker. One hour later, having finished lunch and said goodbye to those in the bunker, Hitler retired to his room with Eva Braun. Those waiting outside heard a single shot. Hitler had killed himself, Eva Braun had swallowed poison. A radio signal was sent from the bunker to Admiral Doenitz to tell him he was the new Chancellor. In the bunker, Goebbels arranged for his six children to be given a lethal injection by an SS doctor. He then had himself and his wife shot by an SS orderly. Heinrich Himmler, who had wandered about northern Germany for several days after the final surrender, went into a British army camp and gave himself. He was identified and kept under guard until he could be taken away for interrogation. On reaching the interrogation centre he bit on a cyanide capsule he had concealed in his teeth and died a few moments later. Joachim Von Ribbentrop, Hitler’s Foreign Minister, was arrested in Hamburg boarding house. He was taken under guard to the Palace Hotel at Mondorf, in Luxembourg, where those former German leaders who were to be charged with war crimes were being assembled.

In the Far East, the war continued. Despite the massive bombing of Tokyo, which showed the Emperor and his government the possibility of the eventual total destruction of every Japanese city, the Japanese cabinet decided on June 8, ‘to prosecute the war to the bitter end’. Two weeks later, the American forces reached the command cave on Okinawa. During the night the two Japanese generals dressed in full ceremonial uniform with medals and ceremonial swords, had been served a special feast and then, committed ritual suicide. On the battlefield of Okinawa, more than 200000 human beings were dead in four weeks fighting: 120000 Japanese soldiers, 80000 civilians and almost 20000 US soldiers. Since July 11, the Americans were using a new weapon: the napalm bomb, which will be used after during the Vietnam War. In preparing to repel the American amphibious landings on Japan, two new suicide weapons were designed by the Japanese. One was a torpedo guided by a man strapped into it. The other was a human mine. Experiments were also being made with a third suicide device: sunken concrete shelters in which six man squads would be waiting offshore, just beneath the water to detonate themselves as the invasion barges filled with troops passed over them. Facing this tremendous resistance, the decision was taken by Harry Truman to launch the first atomic bomb of history on Japan.

In the early hours of August 6, a specially adapted B-29 bomber, Enola Gay, dropped a single atomic bomb. The estimated death toll just after the explosion was estimated to 80000. Within two weeks it reached 92,233. By 1986, the cenotaph of Hiroshima listed 138,890. Albert Camus said in the newspaper Combat: ‘At this very time, the industrial civilization had reached a climax of savagery and barbarism’. The Japanese government still refused to surrender. In the morning of August 9, a second specially adapted bomber, Bock’s car, dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Thirty years later, the final death toll was calculated at 48,857. On the morning of August 14, the Japanese people heard for the first time of their history the voice of the Emperor, telling them he was asking for unconditional surrender. As USSR invaded Mandchuria 7 days earlier, fighting continued until the 20th of August. The Russian troops stopped on August 23 when they occupied Port Mc Arthur, which they had lost to the Japanese in the last Russo-Japanese war in 1905. On the day after Japan’s surrender, Mao Tse-tung had ordered his troops to ‘advance on all fronts’. He was determined to extend communist control as widely as possible.

On September 2, a ceremony was held on board of the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. General Mc Arthur supervised the signing of the Japanese surrender. Hiro-hito remained on the Throne but Japan was put under US military control and Mc Arthur was designed to be governor of Japan.

New conflicts were emerging in the Far East. On August 16, the Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh ordered a general insurrection which led after to the first Vietnam War after the declaration of independence pronounced by Ho Chi Minh on September 2.

The death tolls of the Second World War were still being calculated in 1945.

– As many as fifteen million soldiers, sailors and airmen had been killed in action.
– At least ten million civilians had been murdered in deliberate killings.
– Between four and five million civilians had been killed in air raids.
– Four million prisoners of war had been killed.

The total death toll is estimated at thirty-three million and the death toll is about the same for Asia which leads to a total of at least fifty million dead and even sixty million. Or even more? As the Dresden (a German city, destroyed up to 80%, where the death toll was estimated to be around 250,000) memorial expressed: “How many died? Who knows the number?”

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Memories of the second world war

The 2nd World War – Lesson

 

When the First World War came to an end in 1918, the winners tried to enforce a peace that would last. It was the main goal of the Treaty of Versailles.

But, till the beginning, the treaty was doomed to fail. Germany was held responsible for the war and forced to pay heavy reparations. The German economy was pinned down by the burden of debt and inflation. The Italians felt poorly rewarded for their participation on the allied side. In addition, the great depression of the 30th threw millions of workers out of work and worsened considerably the political and social situation in Europe, especially in Germany.

Adolf Hitler, born in Austria in 1889, preached the superiority of the “Aryan” race over all others, particularly the slavs, the communists and the jews. His party, the NSDAP, or Nazi party (National Socialist) came to power in 1933. In Italy, the Italians flocked to the support of Benito Mussolini. Mussolini was following similar grandiose, nationalistic designs.

In 1936, Hitler and Mussolini claimed their mutual support with the creation of the Berlin-Rome Axis.

France and Britain did little to resist the Nazis and fascists ventures. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 and Hitler took over Austria in 1938. Both illegally intervened into the Spanish civil war, to support the franquists forces. Czechoslovakia was invaded in 1938. So did Poland in 1939. This time, France and England reacted, but too late.

Soon, war broke up again in Europe, then in the world, involving many countries from the east and the west, and their colonies.

–          In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland.

–          In 1940, the French Army was crushed, so was Denmark’s and Holland’s. Only Britain was left in 1941 to resist the German assaults.

–          Germany invaded USSR in 1941 and Pearl Harbor brought the USA into war.

–          In 1942, the victory of El-Alamein marked a shift in the situation. The retreat of the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) was long but victory finally came to the Allied in 1945.

 

 

The consequences of the World War II

 

 

50 million people have died during the conflict. For the first time in history, since the wars of religion during the XVIth and XVIIth centuries, the civilians were more affected than the armies. 75 p.c. of the victims were civilians. Deportation, concentration camp, slaughter and cold-blood massacres, bombings and epidemics caused awful losses, especially in Eastern Europe: The USSR suffered a loss of 20 million people (12 p.c of its population), Poland 6 million/18 p.c.

Moreover, for the world has experienced the biggest cold-blooded enterprise of  Genocide. From spring 1942 to the fall 1943 took place the “Operation Reinhard”. This first ambitious program aimed to eliminate two million of Jews, gathered in Poland, into the various concentration camps of Mathausen, Dachau, Chelmno…etc Six Extermination camps were built between 1942 and 1943. One could hardly call them “camps” as there were only railroads which led to the Gas chambers. The particularity of the Nazi Genocide was that it was organized as a scientific and rationalized enterprise. Death was an industry. The prisoners were directed to the shower where they were executed by gas spraying and other prisoners were hired to shovel the cadavers into the furnace (crematory).

The belongings of the prisoners were systematically reused. The jewels, money…were given to the Reichsbank, the clothes were given to several organization of social help, the hair of women were used to make slippers…

1 700 000 million Jew people were killed in Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno and Majdanek. 1 million people were killed in Auschwitz. In November 1944, Himmler gave order to end the killing in Auschwitz and to destroy all the installations of the camp. But in two years, the polish Jews, the German ones, the French Jewish communities, those from Yugoslavia and Romania, Greece, Belgium, Holland and Italy had been almost completely eradicated. Only Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Bulgaria were spared the slaughter.

Activity: Part.I: Massacre of Ukrainian Jews.

The Auschwitz complex is representative of all the step of the Final Solution: it was a labo(u)r camp, a concentration camp and a death camp. In 1940, a concentration camp settled on a swamp zone of Silesia to gather the german and polish Jews. Shortly after, an IG Farben factory was put on the site in order to take advantage of the local available workforce constituted by the prisoners. Little by little, the place became an extermination camp. On March, 22, 1943, a gas chamber with a capacity of 2000 people was put into service, linked to five crematory. The activity of Auschwitz II-Birkenau reached its higher point in august 1944: 24 000 Hungary Jews were exterminated in one single day. In total, 1 million Jews were killed at Auschwitz between 1942 and 1944. For almost two years, Auschwitz had been the place of the execution of hundreds of Poles, and of terrible tortures. In the early months of 1942 a new camp was being built there, in the nearby hamlet of Birkenau. More than a million Jews were to be brought to Birkenau by train from all over Europe, mostly in sealed railway trucks in conditions of the utmost squalor, during which many died. Of those thousand, half were usually murdered by gas within a few hours of their arrival. Heinrich Grüber, a German Protestant pastor, had been imprisoned in Dachau for having denounced the murders of Jews.

Activity II: The A-Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

On December 2, 1943, in an atomic pile located at the University of Chicago’s disused football stadium, an Italian Jewish émigré scientist who had fled from his country produced the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. The next step was to find and process the uranium needed to manufacture an atomic bomb.

On April 28, at a lakeside village in northern Italy, Mussolini was seized by Italian partisans. He had sought to disguise himself in a German Air Force greatcoat and helmet but was recognized and then shot with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Her body and Mussolini’s were taken by truck to Milan and hung up by the heels.

On the morning of April 29 the German armies in Italy – more than one million men – surrendered to the allies. On April 30, American troops entered Munich. That afternoon in Berlin, a Soviet soldier waved the Red Banner from a second floor window of the Reichstag, less than a mile from Hitler’s bunker. One hour later, having finished lunch and said goodbye to those in the bunker, Hitler retired to his room with Eva Braun. Those waiting outside heard a single shot. Hitler had killed himself, Eva Braun had swallowed poison. A radio signal was sent from the bunker to Admiral Doenitz to tell him he was the new Chancellor. In the bunker, Goebbels arranged for his six children to be given a lethal injection by an SS doctor. He then had himself and his wife shot by an SS orderly. Heinrich Himmler, who had wandered about northern Germany for several days after the final surrender, went into a British army camp and gave himself. He was identified and kept under guard until he could be taken away for interrogation. On reaching the interrogation centre he bit on a cyanide capsule he had concealed in his teeth and died a few moments later. Joachim Von Ribbentrop, Hitler’s Foreign Minister, was arrested in Hamburg boarding house. He was taken under guard to the Palace Hotel at Mondorf, in Luxembourg, where those former German leaders who were to be charged with war crimes were being assembled.

In the Far East, the war continued. Despite the massive bombing of Tokyo, which showed the Emperor and his government the possibility of the eventual total destruction of every Japanese city, the Japanese cabinet decided on June 8, ‘to prosecute the war to the bitter end’. Two weeks later, the American forces reached the command cave on Okinawa. During the night the two Japanese generals dressed in full ceremonial uniform with medals and ceremonial swords, had been served a special feast and then, committed ritual suicide. On the battlefield of Okinawa, more than 200000 human beings were dead in four weeks fighting: 120000 Japanese soldiers, 80000 civilians and almost 20000 US soldiers. Since July 11, the Americans were using a new weapon: the napalm bomb, which will be used after during the Vietnam War. In preparing to repel the American amphibious landings on Japan, two new suicide weapons were designed by the Japanese. One was a torpedo guided by a man strapped into it. The other was a human mine. Experiments were also being made with a third suicide device: sunken concrete shelters in which six man squads would be waiting offshore, just beneath the water to detonate themselves as the invasion barges filled with troops passed over them. Facing this tremendous resistance, the decision was taken by Harry Truman to launch the first atomic bomb of history on Japan.

In the early hours of August 6, a specially adapted B-29 bomber, Enola Gay, dropped a single atomic bomb. The estimated death toll just after the explosion was estimated to 80000. Within two weeks it reached 92,233. By 1986, the cenotaph of Hiroshima listed 138,890. Albert Camus said in the newspaper Combat: ‘At this very time, the industrial civilization had reached a climax of savagery and barbarism’. The Japanese government still refused to surrender. In the morning of August 9, a second specially adapted bomber, Bock’s car, dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Thirty years later, the final death toll was calculated at 48,857. On the morning of August 14, the Japanese people heard for the first time of their history the voice of the Emperor, telling them he was asking for unconditional surrender. As USSR invaded Mandchuria 7 days earlier, fighting continued until the 20th of August. The Russian troops stopped on August 23 when they occupied Port Mc Arthur, which they had lost to the Japanese in the last Russo-Japanese war in 1905. On the day after Japan’s surrender, Mao Tse-tung had ordered his troops to ‘advance on all fronts’. He was determined to extend communist control as widely as possible.

On September 2, a ceremony was held on board of the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. General Mc Arthur supervised the signing of the Japanese surrender. Hiro-hito remained on the Throne but Japan was put under US military control and Mc Arthur was designed to be governor of Japan.

New conflicts were emerging in the Far East. On August 16, the Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh ordered a general insurrection which led after to the first Vietnam War after the declaration of independence pronounced by Ho Chi Minh on September 2.

The death tolls of the Second World War were still being calculated in 1945.

–          As many as fifteen million soldiers, sailors and airmen had been killed in action.

–          At least ten million civilians had been murdered in deliberate killings.

–          Between four and five million civilians had been killed in air raids.

–          Four million prisoners of war had been killed.

The total death toll is estimated at thirty-three million and the death toll is about the same for Asia which leads to a total of at least fifty million dead and even sixty million. Or even more? As the Dresden (a German city, destroyed up to 80%, where the death toll was estimated to be around 250,000) memorial expressed: “How many died? Who knows the number?”

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